Although arthritis is common, it is not just a disease. Because it can cause confusion, simple primers may help with arthritis types from any age.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
This arthritis is autoimmune in nature. It stimulates joints and other musculoskeletal regions; disability and organ damage are not uncommon. Patients often have intestinal problems, including nausea, diarrhea and constipation.
There is increasing evidence linking microbial groups to the disease path of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have shown that both intestinal and oral microflora may trigger rheumatoid arthritis by stimulating local inflammation in the host. In turn, inflammation leads to a series of harmful cellular changes that exacerbate and destroy microbial communities.
In fact, microorganisms are essential for the development and activation of the immune system, especially for cell types closely related to autoimmunity such as Th17 helper cells.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis affecting millions of people worldwide. Age is a great driving force.
Protective cartilage erosion on the bones of the joints, leading to joint disability, most commonly occurs in the hands, knees, hips and spine. Osteoarthritis is not an autoimmune disease, but is associated with a range of risk factors: age, gender (female), obesity, injury, occupation, inheritance, skeletal deformities and other diseases, such as diabetes.
In one study, fecal analysis of patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis showed an increase in the number of species from Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Eubacterium, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium.
Interestingly, 5% of the patients tested showed the genus pervus. By sequencing 114 stool samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and controls, the researchers in 2013 identified a close association between the presence of Prevotella and disease in newly untreated rheumatoid arthritis. Increased Pleurotus abundance is associated with decreased bacteroids and reported loss of beneficial microorganisms associated with anti-inflammatory status.
Possible repairs? Regulating microbiota can alter bacterial byproducts that cause synovitis and arthritis.
According to the latest review of animal studies on osteoarthritis, rat models show that probiotic Lactobacillus casei can relieve pain, inflammation and cartilage degeneration. Further studies may indicate whether strain specific probiotics are beneficial to adjuvant treatment of OA.
Probiotics supplements and arthritis
Lactic acid producing bacteria show immunity and anti-inflammatory effects and reduce the symptoms of arthritis:
In the 2013 study, Lactobacillus acidophilus protects the organs of experimental arthritis rats by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lactobacillus acidophilus treatment associated with arthritis related organ damage.
In a 2014 study from Iran, Lactobacillus casei supplementation improved symptoms and inflammatory cytokines in patients with confirmed RA for more than a year compared with placebo.
A Chinese study also examined the role of Lactobacillus casei (LcS) in osteoarthritis.
537 patients with knee arthritis participated in the double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to skimmed milk containing LcS or placebo for six months a day.
Compared with placebo group, WOMAC (Osteoarthritis Index) and VAS (Visual Analog Score) scores were significantly improved in Lcs group.
Serum hs-CRP levels in patients receiving LcS treatment were also significantly lower than those in placebo group.
Strong linear correlation was observed between serum hs-CRP level and WOMAC and VAS scores.
But even within the same species, positive changes are diverse. Identification of functional probiotics with specific immunomodulatory properties is the key. It is noteworthy that Western diets containing probiotics and fewer fermented foods may also lead to increased ecological imbalances in inflammatory diseases, thereby preventing them.
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