With the remarkable development of the 30 years of reform and opening up, the material life of the people has been greatly improved, and the production of animal husbandry has made important contributions to the improvement of the people's material life. The purpose of livestock production is determined by the economic level of different stages. Before the rapid development of domestic economy, the rapid growth of material demand, the objective of animal production is how to provide more livestock products more quickly. We have been concerned about the ratio of feed to meat, daily gain and so on.
As the economy has entered a new normal situation, the people's material base has been improved, and the demand has changed accordingly, and the basic transformation of animal production from "quantitative change" to "qualitative change" is also required. The products of livestock production will eventually go to the people's table, food safety has become a national strategy, how to eat well and eat safe to become a new goal, so who leads the food terminal who will dominate the future of animal production.
In the 30 years of animal production, the contribution of antibiotics can not be ignored. However, with the use of antibiotics in a large amount of irregular use, drug resistant and mutant strains emerge in endlessly. The abuse of antibiotics has become a new obstacle to livestock production. No matter the producers are willing to be reluctant to "reduce the resistance", it has become a new trend. The "post antibiotic age" has come quietly!
No breeding is a systematic project. It involves many aspects, such as "breeding, management, nutrition, prevention and control, and biological safety". This article only lists the related parts of feed production and breeding links to communicate.
No resistance to feed is good. No antibiotics should be added to feed. Feed is a part of nutrition. It should not bear the function of disease resistance. It is possible to use antibiotics rationally in breeding links. The replacement products can be divided into two major categories: one is the effect substitute, including enzyme preparation, microecology, acidifying agent and Zinc Oxide, etc., mainly from two aspects of nutrition digestion and absorption, reducing the incidence of the disease and reducing the use of antibiotics; two is the functional substitute products, such as traditional Chinese herbal medicine, plant essential oil and plants. The extract has the same bactericidal mechanism as antibiotics, which is effective in clinical treatment.
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine is a gem used for thousands of years in our country. It has exquisite guiding theory, yin and yang theory, five lines of phase and phase, syndrome differentiation, five Qi and five flavor into the five classics, and has been widely used in practice for a long time. Chinese herbal culture has been a part of Chinese civilization, many advantages: 1) a wide range of sources, in nature, tens of thousands of plants, animals and minerals can be used for treatment; 2) different dosage forms are selected according to different therapeutic purposes, the dosage forms are as many as dozens, and 3) after a long period of accumulation of treatment prescriptions as many as hundreds of species The effect is outstanding; 4) the miraculous processing method, the effect of different kinds of medicine of the same medicine is different, such as the effect of rhubarb diarrhea, and the effect of the rhubarb. Traditional Chinese medicine processing method is the basis of modern extraction, but the traditional Chinese medicine for the modern animal husbandry in the group production is a malady, this is why not a large number of extensive application of the root, the addition of high cost, dose limited by experience is not accurate, such as centipede two, two jujubes, occupy formula space, add quantity As many as thousands of grams to more than ten kilograms, the dosage form can be used to produce complex, and the effect is relatively slow, so the application development space of the product is broad.
Plant essential oil
Plant essential oil is first extracted from the root, stem, leaf, fruit and flower of natural plants by pressing and distillation. It belongs to a kind of plant extract, which mainly contains aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile oil, polyphenols, glucosides, three terpenoid saponins, etc., mainly used as: 1) purifying air and sterilizing; 2) days. But the essential oil contains rich vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and so on, can nourish the body cells; 3) the volatility is strong, can mediate the central nerve and hypothalamus reflex through respiration and transdermal absorption, mediate the nerve function; 4) mediate central immunity, promote body fluid immunity; 5) contain polyphenols, have a day But anticorrosion characteristics. Natural essential oils can mediate the secretion of hormones, enzymes and hormones, and balance their functions. Natural essential oils are generally expensive, and are often used in high-end industries such as medicine, health care, beauty, etc.
After the study of natural essential oil, the functional groups on the main chain were found, and the chemical components were oxidized, reduced and decomposed by chemical process. The commonly used ingredients in animal production are polyphenols and aldehydes, which are mainly bactericidal. However, because of the high concentration of chemical essential oil and single chemical structure, there are shortcomings in practical application: 1) the volatility is strong, the polyphenols essential oil is exposed to more than 70% in the air for 1 months, and it will evaporate 30%~50% in the organic solvent for 1 months; 2) is easy to oxidize, due to the simple structure and oxidation reaction of air or metal ions. Should change the color of feed, produce some toxic substances; 3) poor palatability, low concentration of essential oil can bring pleasure, odor of high concentration of essential oil, lower palatability, strong irritation to the gastrointestinal tract, decrease of feed intake, slow weight gain, rough fur; 4) limitation of antibacterial spectrum, generally combined essential oil do not Dissolved in water, partly dissolved in small intestinal fluid, can not kill other tissue microbes widely, on the other hand, the addition of essential oil is small, which is not conducive to the field addition of the culture enterprises, because the small quantity is not easy to mix well, which will lead to the decrease of the effect and even the poisoning.
Plant extracts are derived from all plants in nature. They are chemically or chemically oriented to extract the desired components, but their chemical structure does not change. Plant extracts can be divided into acid, aldehydes, polyphenols, saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. According to the characters, they can be divided into plant essential oil, plant powder, lens and extract. The extract of animal production is more, the cost is low, and the effect is stable. According to different purposes, extract the corresponding components and select the corresponding extraction methods, so the ingredients are stable. The commonly used methods include water extraction, ester extraction, alcohol extraction and microwave-assisted extraction, such as plant polysaccharide, plant chlorogenic acid, plant flavonoids, plant polyphenols, plant reducing sugar and oligosaccharides.
The natural immune inducer of plant polysaccharide can induce the organism to produce interferon, can compete with the virus at the same time as the receptor on the surface of the target cell, block the occupying of the virus, stimulate the growth of the intestinal recess, promote the secretion of B and T cells, improve the cell immunity, use the antivirus in clinical and some polysaccharides also have bactericidal effect, we use more The prevention and control of virus disease.
Chlorogenic acid plants of plant chlorogenic acid are natural bactericidal substances. There are a large number of honeysuckle plants, which have obvious effects on Escherichia coli, Bacillus typhoid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium and pneumococcus, and have selective colonization of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, and we are commonly used in diarrhea and diarrhea. Treatment of respiratory tract infection, exudative dermatitis and tissue infection.
The structure of the plant flavonoids is similar to the progesterone in the animal. It has a weak estrogenic effect, strong breeding for sows, cows and laying hens. At the same time, it has the effect of protein assimilation and growth. The second part of the flavonoids has antioxidant effect and eliminates toxins. We propagate soybean isoflavones and Ge Genhuang to the mother animal. Ketone, etc., has obvious effects on the return, mating and lactation of the female animals, and has an effect on the weight gain of finishing pigs and broilers.
Plant polyphenols, which are natural antioxidants, have an obvious effect on fat metabolism, can promote the decomposition of fat, improve the use of animals on oil, promote growth, protect the liver and protect the bile, discharge toxins produced in the process of disease, stress and nutrition metabolism through glucuronic acid in vitro and reduce liver disease. Happen. In culture, it is often used to decompose fat, increase energy, make natural antioxidants, protect liver and gallbladder, and use anti stress drugs.
Reducing sugar is a general name for monosaccharides and oligosaccharides. It can increase energy, and it also promotes the breeding of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, promotes immunity, improves the intestinal environment and promotes digestion and absorption. In practice, sow's constipation and milk shortage were improved obviously, and the titer of antibody against vaccine increased obviously.
Plant extracts have a wide range of sources. Chinese herbal medicine is only a part of the plant to use a higher cost, plant extracts can be all herb medicine, and can be selected in non "Pharmacopoeia" plant extraction, so low cost, extraction in accordance with a certain proportion of the shrinkage, the common proportion is 1:4~1:25, the extracted material is equivalent to the original medicine 4~25 times, which can reduce the amount of addition.
In the process of aquaculture, we can completely replace antibiotics to carry out daily health care. On the one hand, we should reduce costs and prevent drug resistance on the one hand. When the disease comes, we can improve the dosage or cooperate with antibiotics to treat the disease. The effect is obvious, avoiding the emergence of drug-resistant and mutant strains. The problems we encountered in production are not caused by a single cause, so the single plant extract can not solve the problem well, so it needs to be mixed into a prescription. The compound principle is to find a prescription according to the purpose. According to the composition of the composition, the final composition is determined by uniform experiment.
Through our extensive research data, plant extracts have a promising effect in production practice. 1) good effect, the extraction of aromatic substances can effectively improve the palatability, increase feed intake; 2) good germicidal effect, chlorogenic acid natural bactericidal substance; 3) promote growth effect obviously; 4) promote the breeding of livestock; 5) anti stress effect; 6) to promote the absorption of inorganic salt of feed.