Stevioside, also known as stevioside, stevioside and stevioside, is a sweetener with high sweetness and low heat energy extracted from the leaves and stems of Stevia rebaudiana, a composite herb. It is a natural product with no side effects on human body and has a certain auxiliary therapeutic effect on obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and dental caries.
The sweetness of stevioside is 150 times 300 times of that of sucrose, while the calorific value of stevioside is about 1/250 of sucrose. Stevioside is a natural low caloric sweetener which has been found in the world and approved by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Light Industry of China.
Stevioside is the third natural sucrose substitute with development value and health esteem besides sugarcane and beet sugar. It is internationally known as the third sugar source in the world. As people pay more and more attention to health, steviose, as a kind of functional sugar, is widely used in the food industry and has a very broad application prospect.
Characteristics of stevioside
Stevioside with purity of more than 80% is white crystalline or powder with little hygroscopicity.
It is soluble in water and ethanol, and when mixed with sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and so on, not only stevioside is more pure, but also the sweetness can be multiplied. The sugar has poor heat resistance and is not easy to shine. It is stable and easy to store in the range of pH 3 - 10.
The stability of the solution is good, and the heating treatment is still stable in the range of pH of the general beverage food. Stevioside has little change in the organic acid solution containing sucrose for half a year; does not decompose in the acid-base medium, can prevent fermentation, discoloration and precipitation; can reduce viscosity, inhibit bacterial growth and prolong product shelf life.
4. Sweet and ignorant
Stevioside is sweet and pure, cool and long, tastes similar to white sugar, but sweetness is 150 - 300 times of sucrose. The sweetness of the pure A is 450 times higher than that of sucrose, and the taste is better. The dissolution temperature of Stevia has great relationship with sweetness. Generally, low temperature has high solubility and sweetness, high temperature dissolves, good taste, but low sweetness. When it is mixed with citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, amino acid and so on, it can kill the aftertaste of stevioside. Therefore, the mixture with the above substances can play a role in modifying the taste and improve the quality of stevioside sweetness.
Health function of stevioside
Stevioside in human body does not participate in physiological and biochemical reactions, has a certain degree of inhibition of bacteria and antiseptic effect, good safety. A large number of drug experiments have proved that stevioside has no toxic side effects, no carcinogenicity and food safety. Regular consumption of stevioside can prevent hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart disease, dental caries and so on. It is an ideal sweetener to replace sucrose.
1. Prevent diabetes.
Stevioside can not be digested by enzymes in the human digestive tract. Stevioside intake enters the colon through the stomach and small intestine and is fermented by intestinal microorganisms to produce short-chain fatty acids. The calorific value of stevioside was indirectly generated by short chain fatty acids, about 6.3kJ/g. Stevioside is not digestible so that it will not cause an increase in blood glucose concentration after intake, and will not promote the increase in blood insulin concentration, suitable for diabetic patients.
2. Prevent hypertension.
Stevioside has a certain anti-hypertensive effect, and this effect may be related to its inhibition of calcium influx.
3. Prevent cancer.
Stevioside mixture can inhibit the formation of skin cancer induced by dimethylbenzoanthracene in mice, which shows that it can prevent the occurrence of tumor. Stevioside is not digestible and non-fermentable, can promote the maintenance of normal intestinal ecology, increase the volume of feces, reduce the pH value of feces, for constipation and anal, rectal diseases have a good preventive effect. In addition, as the volume of feces increases, toxic substances in the intestine can be diluted to prevent cancer.
4, regulating blood lipids
It has been reported that stevioside can reduce the levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood, reduce the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL), do not affect the concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL), and increase the ratio of HDL to LDL. It may be that stevioside can effectively increase the removal of cholic acid and inhibit the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutamyl coenzyme A, and decrease the biosynthesis of cholesterol in the liver. The decrease of triglycerides is related to the decrease of lipid absorption and fatty acid synthesis.
5. Inhibit pathogenic bacteria.
Many studies have shown that stevioside can promote the proliferation of bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus in human body and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli. The mechanism may be that acetic acid and lactic acid produced by stevioside fermentation reduce intestinal pH and prevent the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and spoilage bacteria in the intestine. In addition, the production of short chain fatty acids from fermentation also inhibited the production of bacterial toxins.
6. Promote mineral absorption.
Many researchers have found that stevioside can promote the absorption of minerals, especially calcium, because the fermentability of stevioside reduces the intestinal pH and makes calcium, magnesium and other soluble, and easy to be absorbed by the human body through epithelial cells.
Application of stevioside in food
1. Application of stevioside in beverages
Stevioside has a high sweetness. It can be used to replace 15%-35% sucrose in cool drinks and cold drinks. It not only meets the requirements of national standards, but also does not reduce the quality of products. At the same time, it can improve the taste of the beverage, make it have a cool and tasty sweetness, can change the strong sweetness of sugar, realize the low-sugar beverage, and produce the same variety of fruit-flavored soda with steviose than all sucrose.
The reduced cost is 20% - 30%. This low sugar drink is suitable for obesity and diabetes patients, and is suitable for beverage development.
2. Application of stevioside in fruit wine
Stevioside is stable in physical and chemical properties, and is not easy to become a source of microbial nutrition, which extends the shelf life of products. Stevioside is acidophilic, which can improve the flavor of fruit wine, sweet and sour, and change the viscosity of fruit wine. It is used instead of 30% sucrose in fruit wine such as Rosa roxburghii, seabuckthorn and grape. Adding proper amount to liquor can eliminate pungent flavor and improve product quality. Used in beer, one can improve the flavor of the product, the other plays a role in foaming, so that the beer foam rich, white and lasting.
3. Stevioside application in candied fruits, preserved fruits and canned fruits
Candied fruits, preserves, fruit cakes, cold fruits and other products contain about 70% sugar. With the high incidence of obesity and diabetes in modern people, some people are reluctant to accept foods with high sugar content. It is of great significance to reduce the sugar content of the above products and make them low in sugar and calorie value for expanding the market and meeting people's needs.
Because stevioside has the characteristics of high sweetness and low calorific value, it is feasible to use stevioside instead of 20% to 30% sucrose to process preserves and preserves. The experiment also proves that stevioside instead of 25% sucrose can be used to process preserved fruits and cold fruits. Not only the quality of products has not decreased, but also the flavor has not been affected, but more consumers prefer stevioside.
Stevioside instead of 20% to 30% sucrose canned fruit, in addition to maintaining the original flavor, the sugar water is clear, cool and pure taste, reducing the sweetness of high sugar, canned meat, fish, significantly extended shelf life.
4. Stevioside application in pastry
Stevioside has a high sweetness, so the dosage is small. It can be added to pastries, biscuits, bread foods to develop nutrients, health care and other suitable for children and the elderly, especially those with diabetes mellitus and hypertension has a bright future. The reason why this kind of food is suitable for children is that it can protect children's teeth, that is, prevent caries.
5, stevioside in the application of ambiguous products
Stevioside can prolong the shelf-life and improve the flavor of the product when it is added to soy sauce and vinegar instead of sucrose. It can be used for pickling pickles. Its taste is pure and delicious. It can induce appetite, shorten curing time, improve the qualified rate of products and prevent dehydration. Stevioside instead of sucrose can make up for some defects of using sucrose alone, prevent browning reaction and not cause fermentative rancidity. Stevioside can also inhibit salty taste when processing salted products with high salt content. It also has the same effect in sausage, ham, meat and other foods, instead of 40% to 50%.
6. Application of stevioside in dairy products
Bifidobacterium in human intestine has many physiological functions, such as maintaining intestinal microecology, enhancing host immunity, synthesizing vitamins, inhibiting tumor cell growth, reducing the production and accumulation of harmful substances in intestine. Studies have shown that stevioside can promote the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in human body and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Therefore, suitable steviosides can be added to dairy products to produce functional dairy products.
7. Application of stevioside in aquatic products
Stevioside can be used to replace 30% - 50% sucrose in the processing of seafood, minced products, kelp products and so on. Stevioside can prevent protein deterioration in aquatic products or browning and mildewing due to rancidity because of its non-fermentation and mediating wettability.
The combination of stevioside and sorbic acid can produce better effect, which can not only improve the flavor of aquatic products, but also reduce the cost of products. The use of stevioside in kelp products can not only solve the sticky phenomenon of preparing kelp, but also avoid the hardening of kelp meat and the damage of teeth when eating too much sugar. The use of stevioside instead of part of sucrose is beneficial to avoid scorching and loosening caused by excessive use of sugar in Chyme products.
The development prospect of stevioside
Stevioside, as a natural sweetener, has pure taste and high sweetness. It is widely used in beverages, wine, preserves, canned fruits, cakes, condiments, dairy products and aquatic products, and has health functions. However, the mechanism of stevioside in human health care is not very clear, and more in-depth study is needed, and the metabolic pathways may be different for different populations.
Safety studies should also be more in-depth, and there should be more medical evidence of the effects of stevioside on human health. Stevioside is allowed to be used in China, Korea, Taiwan and other Asian countries and regions, as well as Brazil and Paraguay in South America. Some countries in Europe and the United States have different views. Western countries believe that synthetic sweeteners produced under artificially controlled conditions are much safer than sweeteners extracted from natural plants and containing many uncertain compounds.
Therefore, some western countries have not yet recognized stevioside as a permitted use of food additives list, stevioside into the western market there are certain regulatory bottlenecks. However, with the development of science and technology in China, the study of stevioside will be more in-depth, and will gradually be recognized by the market of various countries. With the deepening of Stevia research, the prospect of stevioside will be wider and wider.
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Source of article: Food and Drug Information Forum